By Kirtley E. Thornton, PhDa,*, Dennis P. Carmody, PhDb
Center for Health Psychology, Suite 2A, 2509 Park Avenue, South Plainfield, NJ 07080,
Institute for the Study of Child Development, Department of Pediatrics,
Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of NJ
› Edited/adapted from a longer article that also discussed traumatic brain injury, by David Dubin, MD
Prevalence and costsReading disabilities present major challenges to the educational system. The estimated prevalence rate for learning disabilities is 15% of the student population , with 6.5 million children requiring special education in 2002 . The federal government spent $350 billion over a 20-year period on special education programs , and New York City spends $55,300 per year for each incarcerated youth .